Refractory osteomyelitis is defined as acute or chronic osteomyelitis that does not heal after appropriate interventions.

Most of the time, refractory osteomyelitis is seen in patients whose systems are compromised. This condition often results in non-healing wounds, sinus pathways, and, in the worst case, more aggressive infections that require amputation.

A unique mechanism by which hyperbaric oxygenation therapy is beneficial in osteomyelitis is the promotion of osteoclastic function, since the absorption of necrotic bone by osteoclasts is oxygen-dependent.

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